Visión general de las perfiladoras automáticas

Automatic roll forming machines are used to continuously bend and form metal coils into customized profiles and cross-sectional shapes. This efficient automated process is ideal for high volume production of metal parts like roofing panels, door frames, racking systems, highway railings, solar panel frames etc.

Roll formed parts have high dimensional accuracy and consistency compared to other bending methods. The flexibility of roll forming allows producing complex profiles faster and cheaper than fabrication or extrusion. This makes it popular for various applications in infrastructure, construction, automotive, agriculture, packaging, and other industries.

This guide covers everything you need to know about automatic roll forming technology – working principles, classification, major components, design considerations, specifications, applications, advantages, limitations and more.

Types of Automatic Roll Forming Machines

There are two main categories of automatic roll forming machines:

Perfiladoras continuas

These produce lengthy profiles continuously from coils of sheet metal. The uncoiling, feeding, bending and cutting processes are integrated in-line for unmatched efficiency.

Step Roll Forming Machines

These operate intermittently, forming one discrete section at a time from metal strips. Each step sequentially bends the material incrementally to shape.

Continuous roll forming is significantly faster at over 100 ft/min. Step machines max out around 16 ft/min but offer more flexibility for short production runs.

Roll Forming Machine TypeCaracterísticas
ContinuoHigh speeds up to 130 ft/min
Integrated in-line forming
Large production volumes
PasoSlower speed of 10-16 ft/min
Sequential bending per step
Short or intermittent runs

Classification by Structural Shape Formed

Automatic roll forming machines can be grouped based on the type of structural section produced:

  • Sheet & Panel Roll Forming – For flat planar parts like roofing sheets, garage doors, trailer side walls
  • Enrollado de tarimas – Corrugated metal decking for floors, bridges, mezzanines
  • C & U Channel Roll Forming – Cee and rectangular hollow profiles like road barriers
  • Angle Roll Forming – L-shaped angle sections for shelves, racks, frames
  • Hat Channel Roll Forming – Hat-shaped beams for walls, metallic studs
  • Cladding Roll Forming – Architectural facade cladding, wall panels
  • Door Frame Roll Forming – Hollow door and window frames
  • Steel Beam Roll Forming – I-beam, H-beam
  • Square/Rectangular Tube – Hollow structural sections as columns, fence posts
  • Special Shapes – Custom profiles for niche applications

Classification by Industry

Automatic roll forming systems cater to a diverse range of industries:

  • Construcción: Wall panels, roofing, framing, windows
  • Infraestructura: Highway rails, lighting poles, drainage
  • Automoción: Chassis parts, panels, bumpers
  • Agricultura: Silos, greenhouses, livestock pens
  • Transporte: Truck bodies, trailers, railcars
  • Embalaje: Racks, shelving, pallets, conveyors
  • Muebles: Storage, displays, frames
  • HVAC: Ducting
  • Electrodomésticos: Washing machines, refrigerators

This wide applicability makes roll forming a versatile metalworking process.

máquina formadora de rollos automática
Overview of Automatic Roll Forming Machines 4

Key Components of Automatic Roll Forming Machines

A typical automated roll forming line consists of several modular components:

Desenrollador

The uncoiler holds a large coil of thin coiled sheet metal mounted on a shaft. It steadily unwinds the strip at the entry end.

Alimentador

The feeder consists of powered pinch rollers that grip the strip and pull it through the line at a constant speed.

Pre-punching Unit

Optional pneumatic punching heads to punch holes or cutouts in the strip before forming.

Servo Electric Rollers

Rolling stations with top and bottom rollers bend the strip incrementally as it passes through. Servo motors precisely control roller movement.

Sistema hidráulico

Hydraulics raise/lower rollers for rapid tool-less changeovers between different profiles.

Controlador

PLC controls coordinate all machine motions and track strip position.

Decoiler/Recoiler

Recoils the finished profile neatly or chops into required lengths.

Recinto de seguridad

Full perimeter guarding for operator safety.

Other Options

Welding, notching, embossing, Crimping, shearing, tooling, and more between stands.

Principio de funcionamiento de las máquinas perfiladoras

The operating principle involves continuously bending metal strip through a series of roller pairs called forming stations to gradually shape the profile:

  1. Sheet metal coil strip enters from uncoiler into feed unit
  2. Powered rollers grip and move strip forward at constant speed
  3. Strip passes through progressive stations that bend portion incrementally
  4. Top and bottom rollers rotate to impart precise bending angle
  5. Rollers use servo motors for adjustable pressure and position
  6. Control system synchronizes roller operation down the line
  7. Hydraulics adjust up/down for rapid tooling changeovers
  8. Additional operations like punching are done in-between stands
  9. Formed profile output to chopper or collected on recoiler

The incremental bends compound to form the final structural shape. The easy interchangability of rollers enables producing different geometries from the same machine.

Design Considerations for Roll Forming Lines

To create an optimal automated roll forming system, here are some key design factors:

Forma del perfil

The desired profile geometry guides component selection. More complex shapes need more roller stations.

Propiedades del metal

Material grade, hardness, and thickness affect bend radius, roller loads, and line speed.

Volumen de producción

Higher volumes demand faster in-line continuous processes. Lower volumes suit slower step roll forming.

Ancho de banda

Maximum strip width depends on application. Typical range is 18 – 72 inches.

Accuracy Needed

Precision parts require servo electric rollers. Standard hydraulics suffice otherwise.

Operaciones secundarias

Additional punching, notching, welding needed will determine the line layout.

Normas de seguridad

The system must incorporate safety controls like emergency stops, guards, safe voltage.

Future Flexibility

Modular design enables easy changeovers between profiles.

Considering these parameters ensures optimal productivity from the roll forming system.

Specifications of Roll Forming Machines

Roll forming lines are highly customizable, but some typical specifications are:

CaracterísticaEspecificaciones típicas
Velocidad de formación16 – 130 ft/min
Espesor del metal0.5 – 2.5 mm
Ancho de banda18 – 72 inches
Anchura del perfil2 – 16 inches
Estaciones de rodillos10 – 50+
Diámetro del rodillo100 - 300 mm
Tipo rodilloVertical, Horizontal, Idler, Saddle
Drive MethodElectric Servo, Hydraulic
Main Voltage380V, 480V 3-phase
ControlarSiemens, Allen Bradley, Omron
EstructuraC-frame, O-frame
SeguridadFully enclosed guards, safety mats

These parameters can be customized to suit production requirements. Advanced 3D simulation software helps optimize the design.

Major Applications of Roll Formed Sections

Due to its flexibility and efficiency, automated roll forming produces a diverse range of structural parts:

Tejados y revestimientos

  • Corrugated and standing seam metal roof/wall panels
  • Trapezoidal roof sheeting
  • Insulated architectural panels

Framework and Framing

  • C/U channel frames for mezzanines, racks, platforms
  • Hollow metal door jambs and frames
  • Steel studs for interior walls, partitions

Highway Safety Products

  • W-beam crash barriers
  • Barreras de seguridad
  • Light pole standards
  • Traffic sign posts

Edificios agrícolas

  • I-beam rafters
  • U-channel sections for livestock pens
  • Silo rings
  • Greenhouse frames

Automotive Components

  • Inner panel reinforcements
  • Bumpers, side rails
  • Chassis frames
  • Wheel rims

HVAC Ducting

  • Spiral rectangular ducts
  • Round/oval ducts
  • Ventilation shafts

These profiles optimize strength-to-weight ratio and are fast to produce.

máquina formadora de rollos automática
Overview of Automatic Roll Forming Machines 5

Benefits of Roll Formed Sections

Here are some of the advantages of using roll formed parts instead of alternate methods:

High Production Rates

  • Up to 10x faster than extrusion
  • Outpaces fabrication speeds
  • Ideal for high volume continuous runs

Dimensional Consistency

  • Maintains precise tolerances
  • Same accuracy along the length
  • Less warped or deformed parts

Flexibilidad de diseño

  • Make endless cross-sectional shapes
  • Easily adjust profiles
  • Suit small batch custom jobs

Ahorro de material

  • No wasted offcuts like fabrication
  • Uses thin coiled steel efficiently
  • Lower costs than extruded shapes

Strength Properties

  • Cold forming work-hardens the metal
  • Increases strength up to 25%
  • Lightweight but rigid parts

Acabado superior

  • Smooth, uniform surface texture
  • No welding or machining marks
  • Consistent appearance

Menores costes de utillaje

  • Only rollers need changing
  • Faster changeovers than presses
  • Scalable incremental tooling

Minimal Secondary Processing

  • Finished parts off the line
  • Little extra drilling, welding
  • Saves additional steps

These factors make roll forming the process of choice for producing straight metal sections in long lengths.

Limitaciones de la tecnología de perfilado

However, there are some limitations to be aware of when designing roll formed components:

  • Part Lengths – Limited to width of coils, max 60-100 ft lengths
  • Altura del perfil – Max height restricted to 5 inches
  • Bend Radius – Radii under 2x thickness risks cracking
  • Width Capability – Max strip width around 72 inches
  • Geometric Complexity – Simpler profiles preferred
  • Fuerza – Weaker than comparable extrusions
  • Apariencia – Surface marks from rollers
  • Fixed Tooling – Making new shapes requires full tooling change
  • Batch Sizes – Short runs under 1000 pcs inefficient

Engineers must work within these boundaries during design. Roll forming remains ideal for long production runs of basic sections within the process capabilities.

How to Choose a Roll Forming Machine Supplier

Selecting the right roll forming machinery partner is critical to operational success. Here are important factors to evaluate potential suppliers on:

Experiencia

  • Years in business and number of projects executed
  • Knowledgeable about the latest innovations

Capacidad de producción

  • Offer range of machine sizes and production volumes
  • Advanced servo-electric and hydraulic technology
  • Forming speeds to meet demands

Flexibilidad

  • Cambios rápidos entre perfiles
  • Modular expandable designs
  • Custom engineering services

Fiabilidad

  • Reputable vendors and components
  • Stringent quality control and testing
  • Robust heavy-duty construction

Automatización

  • Software y controles avanzados
  • Smart diagnostics and monitoring
  • Integrated safety features

Servicio de asistencia

  • Local presence for prompt maintenance
  • Operator training programs
  • Long-term spare parts availability

Coste

  • Competitive pricing on equipment
  • Value engineering for most efficient solution

Partnering with an established roll forming OEM with proven expertise and global support capabilities ensures a successful project.

Precios de las perfiladoras

Roll forming equipment represents a major capital investment. Prices vary based on:

Volumen de producción

  • Higher volume continuous lines are more expensive
  • Entry level step roll formers start around $50,000

Tamaño

  • Costs increase with width and speed capabilities
  • Typical range from $75,000 to $500,000

Geometry Complexity

  • Simpler C/U channels lower cost than specialty profiles
  • More tooling stations also increases cost

Automatización

  • Servo electric better than hydraulic drives
  • Advanced software and controls add cost

Accesorios

  • Secondary punching/cutting units
  • Custom conveyors, coilers etc.

Freight & Installation

  • Shipping heavier machines from overseas
  • Installation services extra

Purchasing complete turnkey systems from reputable suppliers ensures optimal performance and service. Request custom quotations based on production needs.

Choosing Between Roll Forming and Extrusion

Roll forming and aluminum extrusion are two common methods for making long straight metal sections. Here is a comparison between roll forming and extrusion processes:

CriteriosPerfiladoExtrusión
Coste de capital$$ – $$$$$$$$$
Coste de funcionamiento$-$$$$$
VelocidadHigh, 100 ft/min+Slower, 50 ft/min max
Metales utilizadosAcero, aluminioAluminum only
FuerzaMedio-AltoMuy alta
LongitudesUp to 100 ftUp to 50 ft max
FormasSimple and complexComplex shapes only
ToleranciasExcellent, ISOMuy buena
Acabado superficialSmooth with roller marksExcelente
CambiosQuick roller changesSlow die changes
Volume FlexibilityGood, from 100pcsPoor, over 10,000 pcs
Secondary OpsShearing, punchingFabrication required
Aplicaciones típicasConstruction, auto, HVACTransport, marine, aerospace

In summary, roll forming is more economical for long production runs of steel profiles, while aluminum extrusion better suits small batches of complex shapes.

Pros and Cons of Roll Forming vs Press Brake Bending

Press brakes and roll forming both bend sheet metal, but have distinct advantages and disadvantages:

MétodoVentajasDesventajas
PerfiladoVery fast continuous processOnly linear bends possible
Highly repeatable precisionFormas de perfil limitadas
No tooling mark-off on partDedicated tooling for profiles
Lower tooling cost than diesParts must be cut to length
Easy to automateMax height under 6 inches
Well-suited for volume production
Plegado con plegadoraVersatile – make any bend shapeSlower than roll forming
No limit on part dimensionsMore tooling mark-off
Smaller batches economicLess repeatability
Simple tool changeoversDifficult to automate
Ideal for custom one-off parts

In short, roll forming excels at long production runs while press brakes are better for short-run custom work.

Maintenance Tips for Roll Forming Machines

To maximize productivity of roll forming lines and reduce downtime, here are some key maintenance practices:

Daily:

  • Clean metal debris and dust off all parts
  • Check hydraulic fluid levels
  • Lubricar rodamientos
  • Inspect safety guards and stops
  • Verify electrical, hydraulic connections

Weekly:

  • Check belt tension and gearbox oil
  • Inspect roller surface wear
  • Test emergency stop buttons
  • Verify strip alignment in rolls

Monthly:

  • Check chain/sprocket wear on conveyors
  • Inspect rollers for uneven wear or damage
  • Verify pneumatic system pressure
  • Test correct operation of all sensors
  • Check drive motor currents for imbalance

Quarterly:

  • Thorough inspection of all safety mechanisms
  • Check roll cylindrical tolerances
  • Inspect shafts, keys, fasteners for wear
  • Verify PLC program and backups
  • Confirm alignment of roll stands

Proper preventative maintenance minimizes unplanned downtime and enhances productivity.

máquina formadora de rollos automática
Overview of Automatic Roll Forming Machines 6

Consejos de seguridad para el perfilado

Working safely around roll forming equipment is critical. Here are some key safety guidelines:

  • Restrict access for only trained operators
  • Require personnel to wear cut-resistant gloves
  • Ensure adequate emergency stop buttons
  • Keep electrical panels locked with safety interlocks
  • Never bypass or disable safety guards or mats
  • Stop machinery before any tooling adjustments
  • Follow lockout/tagout procedures for maintenance
  • Watch out for sharp edge hazards from metal strips
  • Keep body parts away from rotating rollers
  • Clean up any oil leaks immediately to prevent slips
  • Never climb on the equipment while running
  • Verify sufficient lighting in production area

Incorporating these safety practices and training creates a secure operational environment.

Frequently Asked Questions About Roll Forming

¿Para qué se utiliza el perfilado?

Roll forming is used to make long, straight metal structural sections like roofing panels, door frames, barrier rails, highway signs, and solar panel frames.

¿Cómo funciona una máquina perfiladora?

It works by continuously bending a strip of sheet metal through a series of roller stations. Each station incrementally forms the shape of the profile.

¿Qué metales pueden laminarse?

Common roll formed metals include low carbon steel, stainless steel, and aluminum. Softer metals like copper or brass can also be roll formed.

¿Qué formas se pueden moldear con rodillo?

Simple long profiles like C and U channels, tubes, rails, bars, studs, beams and corrugated sheets. Complex asymmetric custom shapes are possible too.

How long can a roll formed part be?

Standard lengths are up to 60 feet, but some machinesCopy can produce parts up to 100 feet long depending on the coil strip width.

What is the difference between roll forming and press brakes?

Roll forming is a continuous process using a series of roller stations to incrementally form shapes. Press brakes make custom bends by applying focused pressure with a die.

How does roll forming compare to metal extrusion?

Roll forming is cheaper, faster and uses steel. Extrusion makes complex profiles from aluminum but has higher tooling costs.

¿Qué tolerancias admite el perfilado?

Roll formed parts can reliably achieve dimensional tolerances of +/- 0.5 mm. Some machines can hold +/- 0.3 mm.

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